Down to Zero Peru

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC) is a fundamental violation of children's rights. It includes child prostitution, child pornography and child trafficking for sexual purposes. The Down to Zero (DtZ) programme is combatting this situation through preventative and protective measures that focus on actual child victims and on children who are at risk of commercial sexual exploitation.

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The project in Peru works in four pathways: Children, Community, Government and Private Sector. But for the period 2016 -2017 only in the pathways of community, Government and private sector. The areas wherethe DtZ will intervene are: Lima, Loreto and Puno.

This project is part of the Down to Zero Program which is carried out in 4 countries in Latin America. the outcomes in all countries are:
Outcome 1 (children and adolescents): at risk children and adolescents and victims of all forms of csec in targeted communities in the four countries envision future life projects and are organized to speak out, advocate and seek protection against csec.
Precondition 1: children (in particular child victims) access specialized services that protect them, help them rehabilitate, reintegrate and reduce their vulnerability to CSEC (this includes personal development plans).
Precondition 2: children and adolescents identify themselves as stakeholders and participate as agents of change in the fight against CSEC among their peers
Precondition 3: children and adolescents are organized in youth let organizations that tackle CSEC
Precondition 4: children and adolescents participate in decision making within the family, community and (local) government regarding their rights, in particular the right to protection against CSEC

Outcome 2 (communities/families): targeted communities in the four countries have developed and implemented effective prevention, protection and monitoring strategies focused on csec.
Precondition 1: community actors and their leaders recognize their co-responsibility, publicly condemn CSEC, initiate discussions and advocate for changes in values and behaviors to fight against CSEC.
Precondition 2: vulnerable source communities have effective community-based prevention, child protection and referral systems in place.
Precondition 3: communities play an active role in reporting cases of CSEC

Outcome 3 (Government): The Executive, the Legislative and the Judiciary - at national and sub national levels, implement comprehensive and context relevant laws, policies, action plans and protocols to effectively combat CSEC, including participate monitoring and social control mechanisms.
Precondition 1: authorities and public servants enhance their performance and improve their results in relation to their roles in the fight against CSEC
Precondition 2: CSEC becomes a priority in the public agendas at national and subnational level and governments design measures to enhance their performance and increase effectiveness.
Precondition 3: participatory and evidence-based monitoring, accountability and social control mechanisms are in place.
Precondition 4: increased budgets and – consequently- strengthened institutions and services enable the effective implementation of laws, policies and other improvement measures.
Precondition 5: regional and/or binational agreements are subscribed to enhance effectiveness in the fight against CSEC

Outcome 4 (Private Sector): Private sector stakeholders (in tourism, mining, cement and sugar industries and the transportation sector) are aware of their role in fighting CSEC, and amend their practices and/or business models based on ethical principles and values to actively protect children against CSEC.
Precondition 1: private sector stakeholders enter into dialogue with CSEC(including children) and the public about prevention and detection of CSEC
Precondition 2: key private sector industries/sectors develop codes of conduct and other proposals to mainstream children rights in their business models and practices.
Preconditon 3: private sector actors effectively monitor the protection and safeguarding of children rights in their business
Down to Zero Peru

Initial situation

Peru’s current population is over 31 million of which 38% is younger than 18 years. 76% of Peruvians live in the urban zone while 31% lives in the capital Lima. This is due to a constant migration from the rural zones either to the urban zones or rural zones with more access to the development of market opportunities that has been taking place since the mid-twentieth century.
Due to significant economic growth since the 90s, the estimated GDP per capita has increased from $1.500 to $6.000. This has strengthened the purchasing power of families and, therefore, caused a progressive decrease in poverty. However, poverty levels are still high. According to the latest estimates (2013), 23.9 of the population in Peru faces poverty, of which 4.7% lives in extreme poverty. The poor are concentrated in the rural zones, especially in the Andean area where 62.6% of children live in poverty, from which 30,9% in extreme poverty. 50% of the children younger than 15 living in rural areas are poor; 35.9% of the poor have Quechua, Aymara or an Amazonian language as their mother tongue. Poverty affects the development of children and invites for other associated problems like malnutrition, school abandoning, pregnancy at a young age or the violation of human rights.

Prevalence of CSEC
Violence against children is one of the principal problems of Peru. The Ministry of Women and Vulnerable Populations (MIMP) assisted 505 trafficking victims in 2015, 286 females and 209 males, in 2015, compared with 177 victims—122 girls, 17 boys, 38 women, and no men—in 2014. Research on sexual violence indicates that Peru has the second highest number of cases of this type of violence in South-America. The majority of the victims are girls under 18 years of age. In 2013, ECPAT affiliate members in Peru identified a total of 238 CSEC cases, based on the 123 cases reported to the Prosecutor’s Office, 31 to the Division against Human Trafficking and Migrant Smuggling (DIVINTRAP), 70 to the National Family Welfare Programme (INABIF) and 14 to the Yachay National Programme, a programme that works with street children, in 2013. The Ministry of Women and Vulnerable Populations (MIMP) tried to consolidate CSEC data from 203 different organizations in Peru: 101 did not register or detected any cases, which according to this study could be due to the lack of knowledge about CSEC. The remaining organizations reported a total of 811 cases of CSEC, the majority involving girls in the regions of Lima (132), Cusco (38), Loreto (24), Puno (27), Piura (17), Ucayali (8), Junín (8), Madre de Dios (6) and Arequipa (6). The reason for the difference between these numbers and the total number of CSEC cases is that some responses did not include the number of cases. The numbers of cases per modality of CSEC were indicated as follows: paid sexual activities (167, of which 151 girls); child pornography (24, of which 22 girls); SECTT (31, of which 30 girls), the latter being reported by only one organization. In the same study, between 2011 and 2013, the Public Prosecutor’s Office recorded a total of 696 reports of activities related to CSEC, such as illegal procurement of sex, but none concerning SECTT. Child prostitution is prevalent in larger urban areas and near secluded places where there is a high concentration of workingmen such as mining areas and remote logging camps. Tourism is not yet a large industry in Peru, but it is on the rise and with it CSEC in tourism. In 2014, according to a national survey run by CHS Alternativo, 73 % of people surveyed think that CSEC takes place within the context of tourism and travel.
CSEC cases in the tourist industry in Peru are mainly reported to happen in the major tourist destinations such as Iquitos and Cusco. Most victims of child pornography are recruited through fake modeling advertisements, human trafficking
with the purpose of CSEC. Key destination areas for child trafficking are Madre de Dios and Puno, to which victims are directed to satisfy the demand of groups of men in illegal mining. It is estimated that in the mining zone of Madre de Dios at least 400 bars exist in which under-aged are exploited. In Puno, the number of female victims of sexual exploitation amounts around 1.500, a lot of whom come from Bolivia

Target group

The main focus will be on the most vulnerable children under the age of 18, while some elements will also include young people up to the age of 25. A specifically targeted group will be the exploited children, particularly girls, of ethnic communities. Also CHS will work with government and the private sector (tourism)


All groups: children, communities, governments and the private sector will be strengthened as key players in the fight against CSEC.
With the government should take a bigger responsibility in protecting children. Lobby to make funds available by the government is part of the project. In addition, communities will be strengthened to protect their children. A increased knowledge with children to protect themselves The private sector undertakes not allow CSEC in their work areas. These elements are likely to have a long-term impact.

Goals overview

1. Children: Child victims and children at risk are empowered and act as agents of change and are able to protect themselves from (re)victimization of CSEC.
2.Communities: Targeted communities are safer, offer better protection to child victims and can prevent children from becoming (re)victimized.
3. Governments and law enforcement agencies: governments and judiciary systems apply policies, plans of actions, budgets and protocols to effectively combat CSEC.
4.Private sector: market leaders or branch associations of the tourist industry, ICT, transportation and extractives are actively engaged in the protection of children against CSEC.